@sheogorath thanks for the reminder. For me the firmware update didn't work since some weeks (probably since I updated to KDE Neon based on Ubuntu 22.04). Some binaries were missing. A quick web search now helped me a lot, I just had to install two packages manually.
@maltimore Uff, okay, this is not great .-.
Are all efi boot options gone? It should be an easy fix with a live-disk, but having one on hand is not always trivial.
@sheogorath I don't know how to display EFI boot options, the closest I see is the image attached. The boot device order seems fine/unchanged.
Creating a bootable USB stick is no problem, which distro would you recommend?
@maltimore In best case, use the distro you are running, then check their documentation for recovering your bootloader, this should also bring back the entries.
oh lord. Barely 10 hours of fiddling later, and I solved it.
Turns out that in order to properly chroot into the system, one now has to mount a really random directory /sys/firmware/efi/efivars.
It's not documented *anywhere* (that I could find) other than this non-accepted stackoverflow answer
Not specific to Ubuntu or KDE Neon even, this was from some people trying to install Arch.
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